Cannabis, cannabinoids and endocannabinoid system // Konoplja, kanabinoidi in endokanabinoidni sistem

Cannabis is a plant that contains a variety of substances among which the cannabinoids are mostly recognised and studied. Cannabis extracts are increasingly used in the cosmetic and food industries, and also for medical purposes due to their beneficial and healing properties.

Endocannabinoid system

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is present in the human body as well as other mammalian species. ECS represents a system of enzymes that synthesize the degrade (endo)cannabinoids, the (endo)cannabinoids as a ligands and cannabinoid receptors. The main purpose of ECS is to provide homeostasis or balance of metabolic functions such as neurotransmission, inflammation and energy modulation. There are two main groups of cannabinoid receptors – CB1 and CB2 receptors, which differ in their location in the human body and have a varying effects. CB1 receptors are primarily present in the brain and the central nervous system, and to a lesser extent they are also present in other tissues. They modulate mood, appetite, memory and pain. CB2 receptors are more common in peripheral tissues, particularly in immune cells, and therefore have the role in modulating the immune system.

How does CBD work?

Over 140 cannabinoids can be found in cannabis, among which cannabidiol (CBD) is the one with the most scientifically proven positive effects. CBD is not psychoactive unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is considered an illicit drug. THC is present in industrial hemp in negligible amounts and is therefore not present in products containing industrial hemp extracts.

CBD has a number of proven effects, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, i.e. protective action. CBD also acts as antiemetic, relieves pain and insomnia, and calms you down in stressful situations. It should be noted that CBD does not affect psychomotor abilities and physiological parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature.

In addition to CBD, as mentioned above, cannabis extract also contains other cannabinoids with similar effects on the human body. The synergism of the most common cannabinoids such as CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), CBDA (CBD acid form), cannabidivarin (CBDV), CBGA (CBG acid form), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabichromen (CBC) has been investigated and proven in numerous studies.

How do we get hemp extracts?

The production of industrial hemp extracts is most often carried out with the help of supercritical CO2 extraction, which, unlike alcoholic extractions, is more ecological (carbon dioxide – CO2 is a solvent that is environmentally friendly). In addition, this process allows the extraction of all major cannabinoids from cannabis and at the same time excellent efficiency since unwanted substances such as e.g. waxes are removed during the process.

The High Life products contain industrial hemp extracts with CBD and many other bioactive substances such as other cannabinoids, flavonoids, terpenes, fatty acids and vitamins.



Konoplja je rastlina, ki vsebuje vrsto snovi med katerimi so najbolj znani in preučevani kanabinoidi. Izvlečki iz konoplje se zaradi blagodejnih in zdravilnih učinkov kanabinoidov uporabljajo v kozmetični in prehrambni industriji, čedalje pogosteje pa tudi v medicinske namene. 

Endokanabinoidni sistem

Endokanabinoidni sistem (ECS) je prisoten tako v človeškem organizmu kot v drugih sesalskih vrstah. ECS predstavlja sistem encimov, ki sintetizirajo in razgrajujejo endokanabinoide, (endo)kanabinoide kot ligande in kanabinoidne receptorje. Glavni namen ECS je zagotoviti homeostazo oziroma ravnovesje za številne presnovne funkcije, kot so nevrotransmisija, vnetje in energijska modulacija (Jarvis et al., 2017). Obstajata dve glavni skupini kanabinoidnih receptorjev – receptorji CB1 in CB2, ki se razlikujejo po svoji lokaciji v človeškem telesu ter učinku, ki ga sprožijo. CB1 receptorji so primarno prisotni v možganih in centralnem živčnem sistemu, v manjših količinah pa so prisotni tudi v drugih tkivih. Modulirajo razpoloženje, apetit, spomin in bolečino. CB2 receptorji so pogostejši v perifernih tkivih, zlasti v različnih imunskih celicah, zato imajo pomembno vlogo pri modulaciji imunskega sistema (Mackie, 2008; Reekie et al., 2018).

Kako deluje CBD?

V konoplji lahko najdemo preko 140 kanabinoidov, med katerimi je kanabidiol (CBD) tisti, ki mu znanstvene študije pripisujejo največ pozitivnih učinkov. CBD ni psihoaktiven za razliko od tetrahidrokanabinola (THC), ki ga štejemo med prepovedane droge. THC je prisoten v industrijski konoplji v zanemarljivih količinah zato v izdelkih, ki vsebujejo izvlečke iz industrijske konoplje ni prisoten. 

CBD ima številne potrjene učinke, kot so protivnetno in antioksidativno, torej zaščitno delovanje. CBD deluje tudi antiemetično, lajša bolečine in nespečnost ter pomirja (Maurya et Velmurugan, 2018). Ob tem velja omeniti, da CBD ne vpliva na psihomotorične sposobnosti in fiziološke parametre, kot so krvni tlak, srčni utrip in telesna temperatura (Bergamaschi et al., 2011). 

Poleg CBD-ja pa se kot omenjeno v izvlečku konoplje nahajajo tudi drugi kanabinoidi s podobnimi učinki na človeško telo. Sinergizem delovanja najbolj zastopanih kanabinoidov kot so CBD, kanabigerol (CBG), CBDA (kislinska oblika CBD), kanabidivarin (CBDV), CBGA (kislinska oblika CBG), kanabinol (CBN) ter kanabikromen (CBC) je bil že raziskan in dokazan (Hartsel et al., 2019). 

Kako pridobivamo izvlečke iz konoplje?

Proizvodnja izvlečkov industrijske konoplje najpogosteje poteka s pomočjo superkritične CO2 ekstrakcije, ki je za razliko od alkoholnih ekstrakcij bolj ekološka (ogljikov dioksid – CO2 predstavlja topilo, ki je okolju prijazno). Poleg tega ta postopek omogoča ekstrakcijo vseh pomembnejših kanabinoidov iz konoplje in obenem odličen izkoristek saj se tekom procesa odstranijo nezaželene snovi kot so napr. voski.   

Izdelki podjetja The High Life vsebujejo izvlečke iz industrijske konoplje, ki vsebujejo CBD ter številne druge bioaktivne snovi kot so ostali kanabinoidi, flavonoidi, terpeni, maščobne kisline ter vitamini.

L I T E R A T U R E // L I T E R A T U R A
— Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Zuardi AW (2011) Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr Drug Saf. 6:237–249.
— Jarvis S, Rassmussen S, Winters B (2017) Role of the Endocannabinoid System and Medical Cannabis. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners – JNP.
— Mackie K (2008) Cannabinoid Receptors: Where They are and What They do. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 20 (Suppl. 1):10-14.
— Maurya N, Kumar Velmurugan B (2018) Therapeutic applications of cannabinoids. Chemico-Biological Interactions 293:77-88. 
— Reekie T, Scott M, Kassiou M. (2018). The evolving science of phytocannabinoids. Nature Reviews. Chemistry, 2(1), 1-12. doi: 10.1038/s41570-017-0101.